Wednesday, August 31, 2016

System of Military Academies - Alden Partridge

Captain Alden Partridge probably did more than any other individual to promote military education in civilian institutions in the United States prior to the Civil War.

Alden Partridge was born on February 12, 1785 and raised on a family farm in Norwich, Vermont. He was the studious and devout son of Revolutionary War soldier Samuel Partridge, Jr. Alden grew into a tall and hardy young man who worked on his father's farm and hiked the Green and White Mountains in his spare time. Alden attended the local district schools and entered Dartmouth College in 1802.

US Military Academy

Alden Partridge in 1817
Partridge left Dartmouth when he gained admission to the US Military Academy on December 14, 1805. He graduated less than a year later on October 30, 1806. In its early days, the post was both the academy for training prospective officers and the headquarters of the United States Army Corps of Engineers. The Academy superintendent was the Army Chief of Engineers. The Army commissioned him as a first lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers and assigned him to the Academy. Partridge served at West Point from 1806 to 1811 and from 1812 to 1817. He was an assistant professor of mathematics from 1806 until June 5, 1811 when he left to fight in the War of 1812. The Army promoted him to captain of the Corps of Cadets on July 23, 1810. He returned to West Point after active service and taught as the principal assistant professor of mathematics from April 29, 1812 to April 13, 1813. The Army promoted Partridge to professor of mathematics on April 13, 1813, and he held this post until made professor of engineering on September 1, 1813. He was professor of engineering from September 1, 1813 to December 31, 1816. From January 3, 1815 to November 25, 1816 and from January 13, 1817 to July 28, 1817, Partridge directed the Academy during the Superintendent's absence.

Partridge set an example for physical fitness during his administration and often led the cadet corps on summer marches in New York and neighboring states. Captain Partridge was never profane or intemperate. As superintendent, he required cadets to attend church services, and occasionally he prepared and delivered the sermon on Sundays. Unfortunately, he developed a reputation among academy faculty as a martinet. He micromanaged subordinates and occasionally demonstrated preference toward favorite cadets.

The "Long Gray Line" tradition at West Point originated during Partridge's tenure when he had gray uniforms made in New York City in 1814 because of a shortage of blue cloth. In 1816, when the War Department decided to select a new Cadet uniform, the department chose gray because the cheaper uniforms better suited "the finance of the Cadets than one of blue."

Unfortunately, his administration as superintendent was lax and unsatisfactory. To correct this problem, the Army selected Major Sylvanus Thayer to become the new Superintendent. Captain Partridge was shocked at his removal and refused to relinquish the command. In response, the Army tried him by court martial on charges of neglect of duty and insubordination. In November 1817, the court martial sentenced him to be cashiered. President James Monroe intervened and reduced the punishment. Captain Partridge resigned from the Army in April 1818.

In the summer of 1818, New York City hired Partridge to drill and instruct a volunteer infantry company. During this assignment, he presented a series of lectures on military science, fortifications, and military education. Partridge advocated a new program of regional military instruction and began a lifelong campaign to champion regional military schools in opposition to the sole national military academy. Partridge argued that the national academies produced a professional officer class. This created a "new military elite," which conflicted with the country's great generals, such as George Washington and Andrew Jackson. Partridge proposed dividing the nation into state-based military departments. These departments would be composed of local citizen soldiers organized into militias with officers appointed by the state military officials. The state units would gather on a regular basis for instruction and drill, similar to the Minutemen of the American Revolution. He also suggested establishing military colleges for officer instruction in each department.

In 1819, Partridge served as chief of the surveying expedition to establish boundaries between the United States and Canada as required under the Fifth Article of the Treaty of Ghent. He mapped the natural watersheds of the Saint Lawrence River and Hudson River. However, he remained interested in his plans for a military college. He resigned from the expedition in 1820 and retired to Norwich, Vermont.

Norwich University

Alden Partridge
with Cadets
In 1819, Partridge founded the "American Literary, Scientific, and Military Academy" in Norwich. The Academy, now known as Norwich University, became the nation's oldest private military college and the "Birthplace of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC)". In its first four years, 480 students representing 21 of the 24 states attended the new academy. The success of Partridge's program attracted the attention of Middletown, Connecticut. Middletown obtained a financial subscription of local residents as an inducement to relocate his academy. Partridge moved the school to Middletown, and the academy attracted nearly 1,200 students in three years. However, the school's stay in Connecticut was brief and it had relocated to Norwich by 1829.

The Partridge Curriculum

Partridge's program incorporated the study of liberal arts, agriculture, modern languages, and engineering in addition to the sciences and various military subjects. Field exercises and drills, using cannon and muskets borrowed from the federal and state governments, supplemented classroom instruction. The drills added an element of realism to the college’s program of well-rounded military education.

Partridge advocated physical education as an essential part of school curriculum. As part of that program, he often led his classes on hiking expeditions in the many local mountains of New England. On climb of Vermont's Green Mountains in 1822, Partridge led 27 pack-laden cadets on a four-day, 150-mile hike from Norwich to Manchester.

Partridge believed that "a large standing army was a menace to the country." In its place, he thought the nation should train a large 'citizen soldiery' in the art of war." This was the first purely technical and military school for the training of citizen soldiers in the world. The Academy had an initial enrollment of one hundred cadets. The school developed a reputation for having an excellent academic program as part of a tough, disciplined military environment. Partridge "was one of the few military engineers who by virtue of his remarkable mathematical ability, long service at West Point, and practical field work was competent to train engineers and in laying a foundation for engineering work of his students he gave a course in mathematics equal, if not superior, to that offered by any other institution in America." It was thought by some that Partridge's views on military defense were years ahead of his time.

Partridge originated a novel system of education, which combined civilian and military studies in order to produce enlightened and useful citizen-soldiers. He advocated a liberal education, which prepares students for the responsibilities of peace and war. Partridge thought that education must prepare youth “to discharge, in the best possible manner, the duties they owe to themselves, to their fellow-men, and to their country.”
The US Constitution guided Partridge's educational plan. The defense of the nation is vested in the great mass of citizens who form “an impregnable bunker around the Constitution and liberties of the country.” At the very least, the militia needed to be trained in the elements of military science and tactics. "Hence arises the necessity - of an extended system of military education and of a general diffusion of military knowledge." Partridge was emphatic in pointing out that he was not recommending a system of education for youth that was “purely military.” The military was to be only an "appendage" to civil education.

Partridge believed traditional “liberal education” was too restrictive and not liberal enough. He thought the standard curriculum was not practical enough nor designed to prepare youth for the duties of an American citizen. He said the existing educational system failed to provide adequate attention to the operations of government and the important sources of national wealth - ”agriculture, commerce, and manufacturers.”
Partridge sought to transform the traditional curriculum by making it more practical, scientific, and liberal. He expanded the classical curriculum to include modern languages, history, political economy, and engineering. Partridge’s institution was the first in the United States to offer instruction in civil engineering. Partridge also played a pioneering role in physical education and was one of the first educators to offer instruction in agriculture. He was also in the vanguard of academicians who adopted field training as a regular and important extension of theory learned in the classroom.

Partridge was a pioneer in using field trips as an integral part of the process of education. Field excursions provided excellent opportunities to combine exercise, recreation, and improvement. Arduous hikes, according to Partridge’s design for education, were physically challenging and promoted self-reliance. Students involved in excursions became accustomed to “fatigue and privation.” Furthermore, they learned “to take care of themselves,” a process Partridge considered essential to the proper development and education of youth.

These excursions supplemented classroom instruction with "practical and everyday knowledge of the world, which can never be derived from books." Field Trips provided valuable educational experiences in areas such as botany, mineralogy, surveying, engineering, military science, and history. Students visited and examined factories, navy yards, arsenals, railroads, bridges, canals, and historic sites. Partridge concluded that his students derived "more real advantage" and improvement from excursions than from any other activities.

Other Colleges

Historians consider Partridge to be the founder of the system of military academies of elementary and secondary grade. He founded six other military institutions during his quest to reform the United States military:

  • Virginia Literary, Scientific and Military Academy at Portsmouth, Virginia (1839–1846)
  • Pennsylvania Literary, Scientific and Military Academy at Bristol, Pennsylvania (1842–1845)
  • Pennsylvania Military Institute at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (1845–1848)
  • Wilmington Literary, Scientific and Military Academy at Wilmington, Delaware (1846–1848)
  • The Scientific and Military Collegiate Institute at Reading, Pennsylvania (1850–1854)
  • Gymnasium and Military Institute at Pembroke, New Hampshire (1850–1853)
  • The National Scientific and Military Academy at Brandywine Springs, Delaware (1853).

Former Norwich graduates administered these schools.

In the 1830s, he helped create support for creating the Virginia Military Institute. Partridge sent letters to members of the Virginia General Assembly and editors of Virginia newspapers.

As part of his vision to create military departments, Partridge worked to revitalize and reform state militias. The militias became inactive during the long period of peace following the War of 1812. Partridge and Norwich University faculty members who served in the militia, assisted Franklin Pierce, a militia officer in New Hampshire, and and Frederic Williams Hopkins of the Vermont militia to increase recruiting and improve training and readiness.

Personal Life

Partridge married Ann Swasey in 1837, and the couple had two sons. He was an avid hiker and "noted pedestrian." He climbed Mount Monadnock and Mount Moosilauke in New Hampshire. In 1818, he walked seventy-six miles from Norwich and climbed Camel's Hump and Mount Mansfield. It rained the entire journey. One friend joined him in his ascent of Mansfield, but he hiked the rest of the expedition accompanied only by his "inseparable companions," his knapsack and barometer.

Partridge served as Vermont's Surveyor General from 1822 to 1823. Vermont voters elected him to the legislature as a Democrat in 1833, 1834, 1837, and 1839. He ran unsuccessfully for the United States House of Representatives five times between 1834 and 1840. He lost each of those contests to Anti-Masonic and Whig Party candidate Horace Everett.

Partridge died in Norwich on January 17, 1854. His family buried him at Fairview Cemetery in Norwich. His widow survived him by forty-eight years.

He received an honorary master's degree from Dartmouth in 1812. The University of Vermont awarded him an honorary master's degree in 1821. However, he declined the University's offer to become its president.


Partridge published articles in newspapers and books about his many travels, mathematical and scientific subjects, and his opposition to the US Military Academy at West Point. The following is a partial list of his writings.
  • "Observations Relative to the Calculation of the Altitude of Mountains, etc, by the Use of the Barometer" (1812)
  • "Method of Determining the Initial Velocity of Projectiles" (1812)
  • "Account of Some Experiments on Fire of Artillery and Infantry at the Military Academy in 1810 and 1814"
  • "Newton's Binomial Theorem" (1814)
  • "Meteorological Tables" (1810–1814)
  • "A General Plan for the Establishment of Military Academies" (1815)
  • "Reports of the National Academy" (1814–1817)
  • "Lectures on National Defense" (1821–1827)
  • "Discourse on education" 1826. The art of epistolary composition, or Models of letters, billets, bills of exchange ... with preliminary instructions and notes : to which are added, a collection of fables ... for pupils learning the French language; a series of letters between a cadet and his father, describing the system pursued at the American, literary, scientific and military academy at Middletown, Connecticut.
  • "The Military Academy, at West Point, unmasked: or, corruption and military despotism exposed," under the pseudonym Americanus

  1. Cullum Register, Vol. I, 69-70.

Friday, August 19, 2016

General John G. Barnard - Distinguished Officer of the Corps of Engineers

General John G. Barnard
General John G. Barnard was born on May 19, 1815 in Sheffield, Massachusetts among the picturesque Berkshire Hills. John was part of a large and gifted family. His brother, Frederick Augustus Porter Barnard was a longtime educator, president of Columbia University, and namesake of Barnard College. John, Frederick, and other members of their family suffered from a hereditary form of deafness, which worsened with age. In early life, when stationed in New Orleans, Barnard married Jane Elizabeth Brand, of Maryland, with whom he had four children. In 1860, he married Anna E. Hall of Harford County, Maryland, with whom he had three children.

He performed every species of Engineer work; was noted as one of the most accomplished mathematicians of his country; became an erudite author of many valuable volumes; was a soldier ever ready to use his brilliant talents for the nation's welfare; and his high moral worth equaled his intellectual capacity. Many of his accomplishments were hidden from the world because of an inherited deafness, which limited his conversations. However, this infirmity may have turned his mind from externals to the inward development of his higher faculties. He was always a student, and such was his love for scientific investigation that it was jocosely said he read Laplace's "Mécanique Céleste" every morning to get up an appetite for his breakfast.

John received an appointment to the US Military Academy at West Point in July 1829. He was an excellent student and demonstrated remarkable mathematical talents. Superintendent Colonel Thayer said that John was the ablest Cadet that left the institution during the Thayer's sixteen years at the Academy. Barnard graduated second in a class of forty-three cadets in 1833. As one of the top Cadets, he joined Army Corps of Engineers and began a forty-eight-year career in that branch.

Second Lieutenant Barnard's first assignment was as an assistant to Colonel Joseph G. Totten in constructing Fort Adams in Newport, Rhode Island from 1833 to 1834. Totten was the foremost American military engineer of his day and served as Chief Engineer of the Army for much of Barnard's career. There two officers formed a close friendship as evidenced by Barnard's extensive eulogy of Totten in 1866.

Barnard helped construct coastal defenses at Fort Columbus/Fort Jay, Fort Hamilton, and Fort Wadsworth in New York City; New Orleans; Pensacola; Mobile; Fort Livingston, Fort Jackson, and Fort St. Philip, Louisiana; and on the Pacific Coast at San Francisco.

In the Mexican-American War, he directed construction of defenses at the captured Mexican port of Tampico, which protected the city and secured its role as a vital supply line for American forces advancing on Mexico City. He surveyed battlefields for Winfield Scott to assist in infantry and artillery placement. After the conquest of California, he served as Chief Engineer for the Exploration and Survey of the projected Tehuantepec Railroad in Mexico, in 1850–1851 to examine a possible route to the newly acquired Pacific possessions.

From May 31, 1855 through September 8, 1856, Barnard was Superintendent of the United States Military Academy. Following his brief tenure, he returned to work on coastal defenses, especially in the New York and New Jersey area. During a leave of absence, he studied construction projects in Europe.

Soon after the outbreak of the Civil War, US Army commander General Winfield Scott assigned Barnard to the Department of Washington. This Army unit was in charge of defending the capital. On April 28, 1861, Colonel Joseph K. Mansfield, the department commander, attached Barnard to his headquarters as chief engineer.

When the Union Army moved into Northern Virginia on May 24, 1861, Barnard directed building of fortifications on the Arlington hills. He also accompanied the Army to Manassas in July 1861 and was present at the Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas). Between June 1861 and September 1861, Barnard also served on the US Navy's Blockade Strategy Board. When Major General George B. McClellan assumed command of the Military Division of the Potomac and subsequently command of the Army and Department of the Potomac, Barnard became chief engineer of the Military District of Washington. He implemented McClellan ideas for the defenses around Washington. Barnard planned, designed, and directed construction of the network of forts that protected the capital.

Historic Map of Defenses of Washington
In Barnard's A Report on the Defenses of Washington, published after the Civil War, he commented on the complexity and ever-changing nature of the project.  From a few isolated works covering bridges or protecting several important points, Barnard developed a connected system of fortifications at intervals of 800 to 1,000 yards. He placed enclosed field-forts to defend every prominent point and located batteries for field guns to sweep important approaches and depressions unseen from the forts. General Barnard connected the forts and batteries by rifle-trenches or more appropriately lines of infantry parapets. The parapets had room for two ranks of men and allowed for covered communication along the line. Barnard had new roads built to supplement existing roads so troops and artillery could be moved rapidly from one point on the immense periphery to another, or under cover, from point to point along the line. When finally completed, the defenses consisted of sixty-eight enclosed forts and batteries around a defensive perimeter of about fourteen miles. The fortifications had emplacements for 1,120 guns of which 807 guns and 98 mortars were mounted. There were also 93 unarmed batteries with places for 401 guns. Twenty miles of infantry trenches connected the emplacements. The entire circuit of the line was thirty-three miles, excluding the Chain Bridge works and the stretch across the Potomac from Fort Greble to Fort Lyon. Thirty-two miles of military roads, besides the existing roads and avenues of the District of Columbia, provided the means of communication from the interior to the periphery, and from point to point. These works helped save Washington after the Bull Run defeat. They provided temporary shelter to the shattered national forces in Virginia after the disasters of the campaign of 1862. They helped defend the capital a third time when General Early's troops attacked the city.

On September 23, 1861, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Barnard Brigadier General of US Volunteers and the U.S. Senate confirmed the promotion on March 24, 1862. Barnard was Engineer for the Army of the Potomac between August 20, 1861 and August 16, 1862. He participated in the Peninsula Campaign and directed the siege works at Yorktown, Virginia of offensive and defensive works on the Chickahominy River. On the march to Harrison's Landing on the James River, he reconnoitered and selected positions for the Battle of Gaines Mill, the passage of White Oak Swamp and the Battle of Malvern Hill. After he finished with his assignment in that campaign, he returned to his work on the defenses of Washington as chief engineer of the Department of Washington. In addition to this task, he had special assignments such as devising the defenses of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Following the death of Brigadier General Joseph Totten on April 22, 1864, President Lincoln nominated Barnard to be the next chief of the US Army Corps of Engineers. However, Barnard immediately asked the president to withdraw the nomination.

Barnard was an Engineer in the XXII Corps, Department of Washington, between February 2, 1863 and May 25, 1864. Between May 25, 1864 and June 5, 1864, he was Chief Engineer for the Army of the Potomac. He was on the staff of General Ulysses S. Grant in the Overland Campaign between June 5, 1864 and July 4, 1864. On July 4, 1864, President Lincoln nominated and the Senate confirmed to award General Barnard the honorary rank of brevet major general, US Volunteers, to rank from July 4, 1864 for "Meritorious and Distinguished Services during the Rebellion."

The Army appointed General Barnard Chief Engineer of the armies in the field and assigned him to General Grant's staff. He held this position from the Siege of Petersburg, including the capture of Fort Harrison, the Battle of Hatcher's Run, and the final assault on Petersburg, until the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox, Virginia on April 9, 1865.

General Barnard served in the honor guard for President Lincoln's funeral in April 1865.

The Army mustered Barnard out of the US Volunteers on January 15, 1866. On April 10, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Barnard and the Senate confirmed the honorary grade of brevet brigadier general, USA, (Regular Army) to rank from March 13, 1865 for "Gallant and Meritorious Service in the Campaign terminating with the Surrender of the Insurgent Army under Gen. R. E. Lee." On July 17, 1866, President Johnson nominated and the Senate confirmed to award Barnard the honorary grade of brevet major general, USA, to rank from March 13, 1865 "for Gallant and Meritorious Services in the Field during the Rebellion." The military promoted Barnard to colonel in the Regular Army on December 28, 1865, and he remained in the Army Corps of Engineers until January 1881.

After the war, the Army appointed Barnard president of the permanent Board of Engineers for Fortifications and River and Harbor Improvements. He held this position until his retirement. Barnard successfully recast the approach to coastal defenses, which was required because of the obsolescence of wooden ships and muzzle loading guns. He also advocated the successful use of parallel jetties to improve the mouth of the Mississippi River. He was a prominent member of the United States Lighthouse Board from February 20, 1870 until his retirement.

In addition to his assigned duties, Barnard contributed greatly to scientific literature during his lifetime.
Barnard was the author of numerous scientific and engineering reports:
  • "Phenomena of the Gyroscope, analytically examined" - 1858
  • "Dangers and Defenses of New York" - 1859
  • "Notes on Seacoast Defense" - 1861
  • "'The C. S. A. and the Battle of Bull Run" - 1862
  • With General W. F. Barry, "Reports of the Engineer and Artillery Operations of the Army of the Potomac, from its organization to the close of the Peninsular Campaign" - 1863
  • "Eulogy on the late Bvt. Maj.-General Joseph G. Totten, late Chief Engineer, U. S. Army" - 1866
  • "Report on the Defenses of Washington" (Professional Papers of the Corps of Engineers, No. 20)
  • With Gen. H. G. Wright and Col. P. S. Michie, "Report on the Fabrication of Iron for Defensive Purposes " (Professional Papers of the Corps of Engineers, No. 21, and Supplement)
  • "Report on the North Sea Canal of Holland," (Professional Papers of the Corps of Engineers, No. 22)
  • Papers on the Precession of the Equinoxes, the Pendulum, and the Internal Structure of the Earth (Smithsonian Contributions, Nos. 240 and 310) 

      Besides, the above the works, he wrote numerous scientific pamphlets and elaborate professional reports. He published over seventy articles in Johnson's "Universal New Cyclopedia" that illustrated Barnard's mental strength, his versatility of talents, and his prodigious powers of production. The studies include treatises on Bridge-building and Harbor, Breakwater, Jetty, and Lighthouse construction; complex mathematical dissertations on Calculus, Aeronautics, Imaginaries, Gyroscope, and the Theory of Tides; and valuable histories of the Army Corps of Engineers, Lighthouse Board, and the battle of Bull Run.

Barnard was an original member of the Aztec Club of 1847 as well as the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States.

In 1838, Alabama University conferred upon him the degree of A. M., and in 1864, Yale College awarded him an LL. D. He was a working member of several learned associations. Barnard, along with several other senior officers of the Army Corps of Engineers, was one of the fifty original founders of the National Academy of Sciences.

General Barnard retired from the Army on January 2, 1881 and died in Detroit, Michigan on May 14, 1882. He is interred in Sheffield, Massachusetts.

The announcement of his death by the Chief of Engineers concludes with the following epitaph:

A service of nearly fifty years in the Corps of Engineers has been closed by the death of one of the most prominent of its members.
Of greatly varied intellectual capacity, of a very high order of scientific attainments, considerate and cautious, ripe in experience, sound in judgment, General Barnard has executed the important duties with which he has been charged, during his long and useful life, with conscientious care and regard for the public interests, and with an enthusiastic devotion to his profession. His corps, the army, and the country are his debtors.
Modest and retiring in disposition, considerate and courteous, warm in his sympathies and affections, our deceased associate will be missed as few are missed, and his name, which will be held as one of the foremost names of the Corps of Engineers, will be cherished with peculiar love and affection by his brother officers.

John G. Barnard, Cullum Register, 530-535.
John G. Barnard,
Defenses of Washington, National Park Service,

Thursday, August 4, 2016

Confederate Torpedoes

General Gabriel J. Rains
Confederate Torpedoes edited by Herbert M. Schiller contains The Torpedo Book by Gabriel J. Rains and Notes Explaining Rebel Torpedoes and Ordinance by Peter S. Michie. Schiller produced a valuable reference book for students of Civil War weapons technology. In Confederate Torpedoes, Schiller assembled a collection of illustrations including never-before-published plates from Rains' and Michie's reports. The book contains new photographs of the torpedo specimens at the US Military Academy as well as other museums and private collections. The editor introduces each book with brief biographies of the authors. Schiller includes an updated list of vessels damaged and sunk by Confederate torpedoes including additional details on the incidents.  He also includes an appendix with plates not referenced in Rains' book.

Singer Torpedo

The development of Confederate torpedoes began during the Union advance from Yorktown in the Peninsular Campaign. Rains planted torpedoes to impede General George McClellan's forces as they advanced toward Williamsburg. Generals on both sides

CSS Hunley

The Confederate torpedoes were successfully used on many occasions, the most famous may be the spar torpedo on the CSS Hunley that destroyed the USS Housatonic, the torpedo field in Mobile Bay that sunk the gunship USS Tecumseh, and USS Cairo sunk by a wicker-covered demijohn torpedo on the Yazoo River.

Brigadier General Gabriel J. Rains was director of the Confederate Torpedo Bureau during the Civil War. He organized the system of torpedoes and mines that protected the harbors of Charleston, Savannah, Mobile, and other port cities, and invented an early land mine that was successfully used in battle. Brigadier General Peter S. Michie served as chief engineer of the Union's Army of the James and was stationed in Richmond for a year after the war. Michie was Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy at the US Military Academy from 1871 to 1901. Physician and historian Herbert M. Schiller edited the two works presented in Confederate Torpedoes. Schiller is the author or editor of numerous books on the Civil War including Sumter is Avenged: The Siege and Reduction of Fort Pulaski, The Bermuda Hundred Campaign: "Operations on the south side of the James River, Virginia - May, 1864," and The Autobiography of Major General William F. Smith 1861-1864. Schiller graduated from Wake Forest University with an M.A. in history.

This is an excellent edition for Civil War students and scholars who want to learn more about the many devices used by the Confederacy to sink Union ships and protect ports and rivers.